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Antalya region is on the shores of Mediterranean Sea and situated in the gulf bearing the same name, in the south of Anatolia peninsula.
The southern edge of Antalya gulf is open with the other three edges being surrounded by very steep and thickly wooded mountains which start almost from the sea and reach a considerable altitude in a short distance to the Mediterranean.
Bey mountain group extends to the west of the Antaya gulf and Toros Mountain is located to the north and north east. These young mountains bear a limestone structure, being connected with the Alpine oregenesis system. Owing to this limestone structure these mountains are suitable for carstic formations. So, there are many small and large caves in numerous sites of the region. Some of them have been open to visit today.
The best known caves among these are Dudencik, Damlatas, Buyukduden, Altinbesik, Karain and Kocain.Owing to these mountains? formations as stalactites and stalagtimes, these caves are interesting from the geological and aesthetic points of view. Due to the fact that these caves hosted prehistoric settlements in Anatolia, some of these caves like Beldibi and Karain bear interesting peculiarities from the historical point of view.
At some sites the rivers descending from these mountains formed short but deep canyons. The best known canyons are Koprulu Kanyon ( Canyon with Bridge ) and Guver Kanyonu ( Guver Canyon ).
Especially in the west the mountains push themselves in to the sea in some sections of the gulf. In these places there is almost no land suitable for agriculture and the pine forests advance down to the sea shore. However in many sections to the north and north east there are both wide and narrow plains formed by rivers having short lenghts but high flow rates, which descend from the mountains. From west to the east the most important among these rivers are: Goksu, Candir, Duden Stream, Aksu ( Kestros ), Koprucay ( Eurymedon ), Manavgat ( Melas ), Alara and Kargi Stream. On some of the rivers of Antalya region waterfalls have formed to exhibit extraordinary beauties of nature such as Manavgat, Kursunlu, Lower and Upper Duden etc...
On some other rivers such as Oymapinar and Karacaoren the dams were constructed as the monuments of the mankind. The high mountains except the southern edge, protect the region against the cold weather events. The presence of the rivers and this tepid and warm climate have created the plains which are very suitable sites for agriculture. Antalya region and environs are under the influence of the Mediterranean Climate. This climate may be shortly characterized by tepid winters and hot and dry summers with substantial precipitation.
Climate conditions which are very suitable have provided the region with a perfect flora. Mountains which are very steep surrounding the whole Antalya Gulf are covered with cedar forests which descend to the sea in some places. The feet of mountains are covered with maquis ( the plant species peculiar to Mediterranean region ). The vatery plains covered with alluvion host the cultivation of many different types of vegetables and fruits, especiallybthe citrus fruits. In the region agriculture, Floriculture also has an important place. Also the fruits like kiwi and banana, which may be cultivated only in tropical countries, have been observed to adapt to the region?s climate and their cultivation has been started on a large scale. The fact that there is no frost and snow during the winters has made it possible for the greenhouses to become widespread in the region.
Agriculture, industry and tourism are the most important sectors in the economy of Antalya and environs.
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